Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors Associated With Good Performance in Paired Associates Learning Test in Patients With Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia patients have been found to have long lasting, clinical state independent impairments in intellectual abilities as well as in specific cognitive domains of which visual learning and memory are central to our current study.
The main aim of this study was to investigate the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with good visual learning and memory in patients with schizophrenia in a sample of patients.
The basic population for this study consists of Finnish SUPER study on genetic mechanisms of psychotic disorders (SUPER), part of the Stanley Global Neuropsychiatric Genomics Initiative. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966) functioned as a reference group to define good cognitive performance.
The Finnish SUPER study on genetic mechanisms of psychotic disorders is a part of the international Stanley Global Neuropsychiatric Genomics Initiative. The objective of the study is to understand the genetic and biological background of psychotic disorders.
The participants of the present study were patients with clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia who were born between 1950–1979 (N=1,907). The reference group of members of the NFBC 1966 consisted 5,506 individuals aged 46–47 years.
Paired Associates Learning (PAL) was used both in SUPER and NFBC 1966 studies. PAL test measures visual memory and new learning. We used the primary outcome variable of ‘total errors adjusted’ (TEA) which assesses learning over repeated attempts. Lower than the mean score of TEA of NFBC 1966 was used as cut-off for good performance in PAL test. SUPER participants with good performance in the PAL test were compared to other SUPER participants.
Participants in SUPER study were interviewed and filled in a questionnaire about general mental wellbeing, subjective health and lifestyle factor. The association of following sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were investigated: education, age, marital status, self-rated memory, psychotropic medication use, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking.
Of the SUPER participants, 129 (6,9 %) performed at least on the level on which 50% of the participants of the NFBC 1966 performed. Of SUPER participant males 5,9 % and of the females 8,1 % performed on this level.
Performing above the NFBC 1966 50% level in the PAL test was associated with higher educational level and higher use of alcohol in males, and with higher educational level and being married in females.
In previous studies age, education, duration of illness, severity of symptoms have been found to count for some of the overall impairments found in schizophrenia. We found a subgroup of schizophrenia patients with good visual learning and memory and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors that were associated with good performance. In our study education and marital status in women and alcohol use in men was associated with better performance in PAL test.
Marjo Taivalantti, Jennifer Barnett, Minna Torniainen, Willehard Haaki, Jarmo Hietala, Erkki Isometsä, Kaisla Joutsenniemi, Tuomas Jukuri, Risto Kajanne, Olli Kampman, Tuula Kieseppä, Nina Lindberg, Markku Lähteenvuo, Jouko Lönnqvist, Kimmo Suokas, Jaana Suvisaari, Jari Tiihonen, Tiina Paunio, Anu-Helmi Halt, Markku Kerkelä, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Annamari Tuulio-Henriksson, Mark Daly, Juha Veijola, Aarno Palotie
- Vertaisarvioitu: ei.
- Avoin saatavuus: kyllä.
- Koko viite: Taivalantti, M., Barnett, J., Torniainen, M., Haaki, W., Hietala, J., Isometsä, E., Joutsenniemi, K., Jukuri, T., Kajanne, R., Kampman, O., Kieseppä, T., Lindberg, N., Lähteenvuo, M., Lönnqvist, J., Suokas, K., Suvisaari, J., Tiihonen, J., Paunio, T., Halt, A.-H., … Palotie, A. (2020). Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with good performance in paired associates learning test in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 46(S1), S250. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa029.609