Perinatal Factors and the Risk of Type 1 Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence: A Register-Based Case-Cohort Study in Finland, Years 1987 to 2009
Our aim was to clarify previously reported associations and to explore new ones between various maternal background and perinatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes in childhood.
We identified all children born 1 January 1987 to 31 December 2008 in Finland and diagnosed with type 1 diabetes by age 16 years or end of 2009 from the Special Reimbursement Register (n = 6862). A 10% random sample from each birth year cohort was selected as a reference cohort (n = 127 216). Information on perinatal factors was obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register.
Maternal diabetes (hazard ratios [HR] = 6.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.35, 7.73), maternal asthma (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.06, 1.43), child's high birth length for gestational age (HR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.22, 1.51 highest vs lowest quintile) and premature or early term birth (HR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.05, 1.39 gestational weeks 33-36 and HR = 1.17; 95% CI 1.09, 1.26 gestational weeks 37-38 vs gestational weeks 39-40) was associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes when adjusted for several potential confounders. Maternal smoking during pregnancy (HR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.66, 0.77), high number of previous live births (HR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.55, 0.76 ≥ 4 vs 0 live births), and the child being born small for gestational age (HR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.67, 0.96) was associated with a decreased risk of type 1 diabetes.
Findings on maternal asthma and high birth length for gestational age increasing the risk of type 1 diabetes are novel and need to be confirmed. Our findings indicate that perinatal factors may play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes.
Johanna Metsälä, Leena Hakola, Annamari Lundqvist, Lauri J Virta, Mika Gissler, Suvi M Virtanen
- Vertaisarvioitu: kyllä.
- Avoin saatavuus: ei.
- Koko viite: Metsälä, J., Hakola, L., Lundqvist, A., Virta, L. J., Gissler, M., & Virtanen, S. M. (2020). Perinatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes in childhood and adolescence: A register-based case-cohort study in Finland, years 1987 to 2009. Pediatric diabetes, 21(4), 586–596. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12994